Visible Male/Female Differences
Only males bear horns, males larger than females. Females have two pairs of nipples between their hind legs.
Habitat and Distribution
Woodland and forest in dense cover near permanent water. May make
short seasonal movements away from permanent water when surface water is temporarily
A selective browser. Eats leaves and shoots;
buds, flowers and fruit. Will take dry fallen
leaves in winter. Often feeds at forest edges.
Single young weighing an average of 4kg are born at any time of year
after a gestation of 1 80 days. Lambs stay with their
mothers until eight months old. Males are sexually mature at 10-11 months, females at 14 months
and males first breed at
4 years when they have risen in the dominance hierarchy. Lifespan 13 years.
Behavior and Habits
at night, dawn and dusk and rests during the day in the
densest cover. They associate with baboons and monkeys to feed on fruit and leaves dropped
from the trees. Home ranges are about 0,5 ha in winter and 6 ha in summer; and larger
depending on the area. Males will thrash the soil and bushes with their horns and rub the head and neck on bushes and
trees. They can not run very fast and avoids predators by hiding. They
will enter water and are strong swimmers. Fights between males can be fatal and
they are very aggressive against predators
and human hunters.
The alarm call is a loud, very dog-like bark.
Dung and Field sign
Droppings are distinctive tubular clusters of pellets. Clusters are 2-3 cm across.
Horned soil and bushes.