Steenbok - Raphicerus campestris

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Damara Dik-dik - Madoqua kirkii | Oribi - Ourebia ourebi | Suni - Neotragus moschatus | Grysbok - Raphicerus melanotis | Sharpe's Grysbok - Raphicerus sharpii | Klipspringer - Oreotragus oreotragus | Blue Duiker - Philancomba monticola | Red Duiker - Cepholophus natalensis | Common Duiker - Sylvicapra grimmia | Steenbok - Raphicerus campestris | Bushbuck - Trogelophus scriptus | Blesbok - Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi | Bontebok- Domaliscus dorcas dorcas | Reedbuck - Redunca arundinum | Mountain Reedbuck - Redunca fulvorufula | Grey Rheebuck- Pelea capreolus | Springbuck - Antidorcas marsupialis | Impala - Aepyceros melampus melampus | Blue Wildebeest - Connochaetes taurinus | Black Wildebeest - Connochaetes gnu | Tsessebe - Domaliscus lunatus | Gemsbuck - Oryx gazella | Red Hartebeest - Alcelaphus buselaphus | Lichtenstein's Hartebeest - Sigmoceros lichtensteinii | Sable- Hippotragus niger | Roan - Hippotragus equinus | Puku - Kobus vardonii | Waterbuck - Kobus ellipsiprymnus | Red Lechwe - Kobus leche | Nyala - Tragelaphus angasii | Sitatunga - Tragelaphus spekei | Kudu - Tragelaphus strepsiceros | Eland - Taurotragus oryx | Buffalo - Syncerus caffer


Afrikaans Steenbok
Tswana Phuduhudu  Zulu Qhina Shangaan Shipene Shona Mhene
Photo Kobus Hugo
R.W. Min
4" Max 7"
S.C.I Min 11" Max 18" Measurement Method 1

wpe13.jpg (7768 bytes)

F 4 cm
H 5 cm


1 cm
Shiny with narrow point at one end
Mixed or covered with soil

Unusual features/differences from similar animals

White on the under parts which barely extends onto the flanks while the white on the oribi under parts extends about a third of the way up the flanks. The neck is shorter and proportionately thicker than the neck of the oribi. The tail is short and red body on top and white underneath whereas the oribi's tail is black on top.

Visible Male/Female Differences

Only males bear horns. Females are slightly larger and have two pairs of nipples between their hind legs. 

Habitat and Distribution

Open woodland and grassland. Require bushes for cover. . Independent of water as long as green food is available. Penetrates into desert along watercourses. Avoids forest, dense woodland and rocky areas.


A very selective grazer and browser. Browsing includes leaves and fine stems of broad-leaved and woody plants. Also eats berries, fruit and pods. Digs for tubers and bulbs and eats melons for water.


Single fawns weighing 0,9 kg are born throughout the year after a gestation of 168-173 days.  Lambs lie hidden for 3-4 months. Females mature at six months, first lamb at one year old. Lifespan eight years.

Behavior and Habits

Active during the day and nighttime. Feeding time is increased in the dry season. Almost all feeding is below 60 cm. Home ranges cover 0,3 to 2 sq km.  Dung and urine are mixed with soil by scraping with the forefoot. Glands between the hooves mark the territory as the steenbok walks around, and may add scent when dung is mixed with soil. Avoids predators by lying still in thick cover. Sprints away if approached closely, making long leaps every few paces, then drops out of sight into cover or stops and watches for pursuit. If no other cover is available it will hide in large holes in the ground. Mostly solitary or commonly in pairs.


Generally silent but bleats under stress.

Dung and Field sign

Pellets are shiny, long and thin, 1 cm x 0,5 cm, with a narrow point at one end. Dung mixed with soil but not necessarily buried.

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